Carlsberg Foundation 18: Unanswered questions and the limits of historical knowledge. Did some of the Danish king’s liegemen in Northern Estonia reside in Denmark?

Mihkel Mäesalu & Stefan Pajung There are limits to historical knowledge, especially when studying periods so distant as the 13th or 14th century. The sources of information – chronicles, charters, documents etc. – dating from this period are rather scarce for both Denmark as well as Estonia. It is therefore often the case that we…

Carlsberg Foundation 17: Bias, neglect and misrepresentation – the unfortunate side of history writing in Denmark and Estonia between c. 1800 and 1990

Stefan Pajung and Mihkel Mäesalu Soon after we started working on this research project, we discovered to our great surprise, that a comprehensive historiography of the Danish-Estonian relationship in the Middle Ages up to the present time was nowhere to be found. So, in the beginning of 2021 we attempted to fill that void and…

Fond Memories of Köie Street

Author: Tania Lestal The district of Kalamaja was long regarded as home for my family. My grandfather Alexander Lestal (born 1921) grew up there and was surrounded by family who lived nearby. His cousin Ralf Lesthal (grandfather of Andrei Nazarov) lived in Graniidi Street and his cousins Dorothea and Karl Niggul lived at Köie 1a-1.…

Carlsberg Foundation 14: Unexpected allies? Negotiations on an alliance against Novgorod between Christopher of Bavaria and the Teutonic Order in Livonia

By Mihkel Mäesalu and Stefan Pajung In the Autumn of 1443, the Teutonic knights in Livonia launched an attack on their eastern neighbour, the Russian principality of Novgorod. The charge was led by the young lord Gerhard von Kleve, count of Mark in Westphalia, whose interpreter had been murdered in 1438 when he was travelling…

Carlsberg Foundation 13: A gift worthy of a king…

Stefan Pajung and Mihkel Mäesalu Now that the Christmas time is upon us, we thought we best share a story with you, which involves kind of a gift – and a substantial at that. Most of our readers, even if they only know little about the general history of Danish Estonia, have heard of or…

Carlsberg Foundation 11: Not through the sword – but by the law

by Stefan Pajung and Mihkel Mäesalu A few blog posts back, we dealt with Valdemar Atterdag and whether he planned to regain Estonia after he had reunited the rest of the Danish kingdom. In it, we mentioned that Valdemar in 1355 had petitioned the pope to undo the cession of Estonia, but that the pope…